Index to the Submarine Articles

(A work in progress)

The Loss of USS Indianapolis, gone missing, but not missed
12 September 2003   (Chronological date: )

Indianapolis, the United States Cruiser, under the command of Captain Charles McVay USN, changed world history, and was instrumental in bringing the war in the Pacific against Japan to its conclusion.  It resulted in an unprecedented court martial that ruined McVay and his Naval career.

Letters - Charles Hughes aged 18 died on the submarine HMS Porpoise
22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

WW2 Liberty Ships - The Bridge of Steel - Spanning the Atlantic - Linking Britain to America
18 June 2002   (Chronological date: )

In April of 1941, 800,000 tons of shipping was sent to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, by U-Boats, these ships were being sunk at a faster rate than they could be built. In September of 1940, Britain sent a delegation off to the United States with a ship design, and an order for 60 ships, designated as the Ocean Class, of 10,000 tons with a 2,500 horse power engine to produce a speed of 10 knots. This inititive really acted as the catalyst, setting in motion the US move to develop their ship building program, that resulted in the Liberty Ships.

Some Quotable Quotes from random sources
10 May 2003   (Chronological date: )

"Alright, they’re on our left, they’re on our right, they’re in front of us, they can’t get away this time."

Letters - Operation Hannibal, Wilhelm Gustloff and the Cap Arcona
23 June 2003   (Chronological date: )

The Blue Star Line's Tuscan Star, Torpedoed and sunk. The 6th. of September, 1942. Another Victim of the U-Boat War.
24 May 2003   (Chronological date: )

This ship had been built as a Motor Vessel of 11,400 tons in 1930,and usually carried refrigerated cargo on her return journeys to England, and general cargo on the outward legs of her voyages.  I was aware that this ship had been sunk some 9 months after I sailed in her, but did not know the circumstances surrounding her sinking, until I recently read a book about U-109, published in 1997.

Letters - Dutch Submarine Hr.Ms.Potvis
11 April 2003   (Chronological date: )

Index to the Submarine Articles
23 April 2003   (Chronological date: )

Australian Hospital ship Centaur Torpedoed by Japanese Submarine
19 May 2003   (Chronological date: )

The Centaur, sunk by Japanese submarine - click to read the articleTwo days later, at approximately 0410 ( 4.10 AM ) when some 50 miles East North East of Brisbane, Centaur was torpedoed without any warning by Japanese Submarine I-177. The resulting death toll was appaling, only 64 survived from 332 people on board, the worst Merchant Ship tragedy on the Australian coast during WW2.

Letters - Leigh Bishop and the "Deep Image" projects, U-767   
12 December 2003   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Jack "Windy" Magee  from Belfast, merchant seaman in WW2 on SARANAC, torpedoed and sunk by a German U-Boat U-51
08 July 2003   (Chronological date: )

U-767 Lost and found
08 September 2003   (Chronological date: )

Open hatch of U767 at 250 feet in English Channel. Click to read the article.
 Note these photographs are reproduced with the permission of Leigh Bishop. Thanks Leigh.She made but one patrol with very limited success, one ship of 1,370 tons sunk, the British Frigate Mourne, on the 15th. of June 1944. Only three days later U-767 was detected by three ships from the British Support Group 14, HM ships Fame, Inconstant, and Havelock. Fame attacked with her Hedge Hog, reporting two or three hits at a depth of 95 feet, the Hedge Hog, an ahead throwing weapon, firing off 24 under water projectiles which only explode on achieving a hit on their submarine target.

Australian WW2 POW's die at sea en route to Japan. The sinking of Montevideo Maru on the 1st. of July 1942
25 July 2003   (Chronological date: )

Montevideo Maru - click to read the articleSo, 60 years on, with the sinking of Montevideo Maru, by a friendly Submarine ( of course, Lieutenant Commander Wright in Sturgeon, had no way of knowing the ship he lined up in his periscope carried Australian Prisoners of War, enroute to slave labour in Japan ) about 610 Australian soldiers and  130 civilians perished. It was Australia's worst Maritime Loss, almost twice as many died that night on that 1st. of July 1942, as did in ten years of war in Viet Nam.

Letters - Father aboard the Tuscan Star when torpedoed
01 September 2003   (Chronological date: )

Decommissioned Russian Nuclear powered Submarine K-159 Sinks Whilst Under Tow
21 September 2003   (Chronological date: )

Russian Nuclear Submarines at Vidyayevo Naval Base awaiting decommissioning - click to read the articleHer base had been in the town of Gremikha, and it was arranged to tow this submarine to a scrapyard in the town of Polarnye. K-159 was under tow on four floating hulls, and whilst in the Barents Sea a fierce storm struck on the 30th. of August 2003, she was ripped off these hulls to sink in 170 metres of water. Of her towing crew of 10, only one sailor survived.

SS Athenia, First Casualty of the U-Boat War on the 3rd. of September 1939
29 September 2003   (Chronological date: )

Berlin found out about this attack from news reports, and knowing that U-30 was the only Boat in that area, were soon able to pin this error on her. SS Athenia sinking, First Casualty of the U-Boat War - click to read the articleHitler now wanted a cover up. He did not wish to have another event like the Lusitania affair from WW1 coming back to haunt him, plus Donitz, and his U-Boat arm. Goebells spread the word that it was the British that had themselves torpedoed Athenia, in their attempt to bring the United States quickly into WW2 against Germany

Letters - Napier Star 1
02 October 2003   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Italian submarines and the veracity of Mussolini?
26 October 2003   (Chronological date: )

The Sinking of the Spanish Republican Submarine C3, by German U-Boat U-34
30 December 2003   (Chronological date: )

U-Boat U-24 sank Spanish submarine C3 - click to read the articleOf a crew of 40, only 3 survived, seamen Isidoro de la Orden Ibanez and Asensio Lidon Jimenez, engaged in disposing rubbish overboard were flung clear by the blast. Merchant Captain Agustin Garcia Vinas, seconded as the Submarine's navigator, was in the conning tower talking to C3's Captain when the torpedo struck home.

Letters - Gross Admiral Donitz' baton
11 January 2004   (Chronological date: )

El hundimiento del Submarino Republicano Español C3 , por el "U-Boat" Alemán U-34
21 January 2004   (Chronological date: )

U-Boat U-24 sank Spanish submarine C3 - click to read the article

De los 40 miembros de la tripulación, solamente hubo 3 supervivientes, los marineros Isidoro de la Orden Ibáñez y Asensio Lidon Jiménez, que se encontraban arrojando los restos de la comida al agua y cayeron por la borda. El Capitán de la Marina Mercante D. Agustín García Viñas, en funciones de Oficial de Navegación del Submarino, estaba en la vela conversando con el Comandante del C3 cuando el torpedo impactó.

A Spanish translation of "The Sinking of Spanish Republican Submarine, by German U-Boat U-34". Thanks to Peppo, the Web Master of the C3 site, he sent the Spanish Translation.

Letters - U-534 was sunk by Squadron 86
24 January 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - From a friend of Walter Schmietenknop, lone survivor from U-Boat U-767 in 1944
25 January 2004   (Chronological date: )

The Capture of U-505 by USS Guadalcanal. 4th. of June 1944
07 April 2004   (Chronological date: )

U-505 boarding party - click to read the articleCommissioned on the 26th. of August 1941, in all she made 12 patrols sinking 8 ships with a tonnage of 44,962 tons. On the 24th. of October 1943, whilst under a heavy depth charge attack, her Commanding Officer, Kptlt. Peter Zschech committed suicide, the only such case in WW2. The boat was saved and brought back safely to port.

Letters - Specifications and history of the HIJMS Submarine I-11
09 April 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Piece of a Midget Sub sunk in Sydney Harbour in 1942 finished up as an ash tray in UK.
26 April 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father commanded the Northern Spray on Convoy ONS5
16 May 2004   (Chronological date: )

How many enemy aircraft were shot down by U-Boats in WW2?
27 May 2004   (Chronological date: )

Operation Drumbeat, a German plan that sent five U-boat submarines to the East Coast of the United States to attack merchant ships during 1942
27 May 2004   (Chronological date: )

Kptlt Reinhard Hardgen, the most successful U-Boat commander in Operation Drumbeat - click to read the articleWith the German declaration of war against the US, all restrictions on German U-Boats attacking American shipping were removed. Admiral Donitz in charge of the U-Boat arm, was anxious to prepare a concentrated attack on United States shipping operating up and down the domestic American East Coast.


Letters - Harold BARNETT who apparently served on the Voltaire as a seaman in 1923
06 June 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Uncle Rowland George Sims, lost on the Bristol City sunk by U-358 on 5th may 1943
06 June 2004   (Chronological date: )

The Top Ten German U-Boat Aces of World War 2
09 June 2004   (Chronological date: )

Knights Cross - click to read the articleOver WW2, Germany produced a number of outstanding U-Boat commanders, from amongst this elite list, I have used the tonnage of enemy shipping sunk, as my yardstick to select the top ten U-Boat Aces from this conflict. I list them in rank order according to their success in sinking Allied ships, and paint a brief pen picture of each of them.

Letters - Friend served aboard AO-11 the USS Sapelo, a fleet oiler.  He was in Convoy ONS5
09 June 2004   (Chronological date: )

Top Ten US Navy Submarine Captains in WW2 By Number of Confirmed Ships Sunk
13 June 2004   (Chronological date: )

Medal of Honor - click to read the articleThe US Navy and its Submarine arm, over WW2 in the Pacific, claimed to have sunk 4,000 Japanese ships to add up to a gross tonnage of 10 Million tons. Post war, the Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee ( short title JANAC ) reassessed all these claims that had been credited to the individual Captains and their submarines, and amended them to read: 1,314 ships sunk, to add up to a gross tonnage of 5.3 Million tons, ie slicing the tonnage of ships sunk to almost half that originally credited.


Letters - U-662
14 June 2004   (Chronological date: )

Picture Page for Top Ten US Navy Submarine Captains in WW2
19 June 2004   (Chronological date: )

work in progress

Letters - Not approved to pick up survivors, ONS-5 and U-125
02 July 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - When did submarines first start using radios?
19 July 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Where to get photo of the Japanese subs 1-11 or 1-9 or 1-10 and Liberty ship, William Dawes
25 July 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - New website for Japanese submarine I-52
31 July 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Information about Welfreighter, Bob Quinn's recollections
01 August 2004   (Chronological date: )

Operation Deadlight, the scuttling of German U-Boats that were captured by the Allies after WW2
07 August 2004   (Chronological date: )

Operation Deadlight - click to read the articleIn 2001, the submarine hunter Innes McCartney, led Phase 1 of the Operation Deadlight Expedition which was the first time that technical Divers had surveyed and identified the wrecks of these German U-Boats, that had been scuttled by the Allies in waters off Northern Ireland and Scotland. Some 54 Submarines lie in deep water that with today's diving equipment are very reachable.

Letters - Permission to use picture for article on Operation Deadlight
07 August 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Memoir of R. Nanthan Lawrence, survivor of ill-fated Convoy PQ 17
08 August 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Aunt may have been aboard Tuscan Star
18 August 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Michael and Ksenia Martyn and their 4 children survived sinking of Athenia
23 July 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Justin “Jungle” Jackson lost in USS Jacksonville August 30, 1944
23 July 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - U-boats to Japan with Uranium
12 August 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father sailed as 2nd Officer on SS Eastlea, sunk by U-48
08 September 2004   (Chronological date: )

The Development of the Catapult Armed Merchantman ( CAM Ships. )
30 October 2004   (Chronological date: )

Click to read the articleIn a desperate attempt to close the gap in the Atlantic Ocean that could not be covered by Allied aircraft flying west from England, and east from Canada, the concept of the Auxiliary Fighter Catapult Ships under the White Ensign, and the Catapult Armed Merchantmen ( CAM ships ) sailing under the Red Duster was conceived and born.

Letters - Friend of Walter Schmietenknop, sole survivor or U-767
31 October 2004   (Chronological date: )

Coastal Command Sunderland, U from Squadron 461, Sinks German U-Boat, U-461 in the Bay of Biscay.
05 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Sunderland attacking U-boats, cick to read the articleAt my stint at the Shrine yesterday, Thursday the 4th. of November I shared the shift with Keith Lindner who had served in HMAS Warramunga during WW2. Keith told me a relative had served in Coastal Command during WW2, and his Sunderland had sunk a German Submarine in the Bay of Biscay, the only details he knew was that this aircraft carried the same designation as did the U-Boat. eg U-761 versus U-Boat U-761.

Letters - Uncle sailed in H.M.S. Vidette
13 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

The Tragedy of the British Submarine with two illfated names, Thetis and Thunderbolt
15 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Emblem of Thetis, click to read the articleCammel Laird had built the 1,290 ton HM Submarine Thetis ( her motto" I bide my time." ) launching her on the 29th. of June 1938. The initial trials were delayed because the forward hydroplanes had jammed, but on the 1st. of June 1939, under the command of Lieutenant Commander G. H. Bolus. R.N. trials were finally due to commence. But the submarine was too light to dive, and a survey of water within her various compartments was made, one check was to ascertain if the internal torpedo tubes were flooded.

Liberty Ship William Dawes. Sunk by I-11 on the 22nd. of July 1942. Wreck found in November 2004
16 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Liberty ship - click to read the articleLiberty Ship William Dawes, hull number 180, was laid down on the 26th. of October 1941, launched on the 9th. of February 1942, to be completed on the 7th. of May of that year, had but a short life in service. She was one of 2,751 ships of this class built in the United States over WW2, and also one of 200 torpedoed, falling victim to the Japanese submarine I-11 on the 22nd. of July 1942, off the coast of New South Wales, Australia.

Letters - Grandfather was a crew member in HMS Veteran
19 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father, Ronald Bernard Bellchambers, lost on HMS Veteran
24 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father sailed in U-767
24 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMS Edinburgh - Was there ASDIC contact?
27 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMS Boadicia
28 November 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Edward Hubenet, died when the tanker Jacksonville was torpedoed in 1944
01 December 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Story of Reg Gill, aboard Leinster
03 December 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - U-boat surrenders in WW2?
03 December 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Uncle was a Royal Navy gunner on the ill fated Gharinder
20 December 2004   (Chronological date: )

Archer Class Auxiliary Carrier, HMS Dasher Destroyed by Explosion on the 27nd. of March 1943. 379 Dead
05 January 2005   (Chronological date: )

The ship's badge for HMS Dasher - click to learn moreSuddenly at 1640 ( 4.40 PM ) a horrendous explosion took place, and the after aircraft lift, about two tons in weight, with a mighty roar lifted high in the air to about 60 feet above the flight deck.



Letters - New website about the Welfreighter
09 January 2005   (Chronological date: )

German U-Boat U-853 sinks US collier Black Point in contravention of Grand Admiral Karl Donitz' orders.
16 January 2005   (Chronological date: )

U-853 - click to read the articleU-853 claimed the last victim of the Battle of the Atlantic, but we will never know if her Captain ignored the order by the "Last Fuhrer." or if in fact, he was dived in his boat at that time, and just did not receive this order.


Letters - Harold Leslie Papworth, was Chief Officer on the Yorktown, and the only officer to survive, along with a few other crew members.26/09/1942
18 January 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father may have been in the Montevideo Maru
18 January 2005   (Chronological date: )

French Submarine Surcouf, the World's largest Submarine before WW2. Her mysterious disappearance in February of 1942.
22 January 2005   (Chronological date: )

French Submarine Surcouf - click to learn moreWhen the German Army flooded into France in 1940, Surcouf was in Brest, refitting, she quickly escaped across the Channel to England, on only one available motor. Not all French Naval vessels surrendered to the British, and Surcouf had to be forcibly taken over by the Royal Navy, in the shirmish, two British Officers and a French sailor died. A British Dockyard refitted her, and she was handed over to the Free French Navy in Britain in August 1940.

Letters - Operation Mincemeat, Dasher, Major William Martins Headstone
31 January 2005   (Chronological date: )

Nuclear Submarine, USS San Fransisco, runs into Seamount on Saturday the 8th. of January 2005.
03 February 2005   (Chronological date: )

USS San Francisco - click to read moreOne can ask, should Commander Mooney in command of a nuclear Submarine be charging around here at 35 knots? The end result was one crew member dead and 24 injured. The other side of the coin, is that the Pacific is a huge ocean, and you might drive a Submarine forever at high speed with total immunity.

Letters - Grandfather was lost at sea from Empire Whale in 1943, sunk by U-662
05 February 2005   (Chronological date: )

Two successful U-Boat Commanders of WW1, Kapittanleutnants Otto Hersing and Lothar von Arnauld de la Periera
09 February 2005   (Chronological date: )

Kptlt.Lothar von Arnauld de la Periera. U-Boat Commander in WW1 - click to read moreIn WW1, the submarine as a lethal weapon of war was in its infancy, however, two German Naval Officers, Kappitanleutnants, Otto Hersing, and Lothar von Arnauld de la Periera in command of SM U-21 and SM U-35 respectively, soon seized the initiative to make their presence felt, so much so, that the British placed a 100,000 Pound bounty upon Otto's head.

British Hospital Ships, Torpedoed or Mined in WW1
17 February 2005   (Chronological date: )

British Hospital Ships, Torpedoed or Mined in WW1 - click to learn more

Over WW1, a number of British Hospital ships were sunk either by means of torpedoes or mines. In the period of 1917/1918, when unrestricted warfare was waged on Allied shipping by the German U-Boat arm, it appeared to be a specific policy to target British Hospital ships for destruction.


Letters - Martha Goddard died on the Athenia in Sept 1939
24 February 2005   (Chronological date: )

Death at Sea in World War 2.
13 March 2005   (Chronological date: )

Death at Sea in World War 2 - Click to learn moreBlame could hardly be laid at the door of Allied Submarine Captains, who were not to know the cargo carried in these ships. It was rather that the Japanese authorities were culpable in not marking their ships with the safety of a Red Cross to indicate that POW's were on board.

Letters - Corrections: French Submarine SURCOUF, the World's largest Submarine
17 March 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Cyril Hill in British ship Harperly sunk from Convoy ONS 5
20 March 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Researching the SS Empire Bowman for one of the George Cross recipients - previously Albert Medal. Interview with Capt. C. H. Cranch
02 April 2005   (Chronological date: )

The U-Boats versus The Convoys. Battle of the Atlantic. September 1939 - May 1945. Index to Ahoy Articles
30 April 2005   (Chronological date: )

Battle of the Atlantic - click to learn more"When you think how easy it is to sink ships at sea, and how hard it is to build them, and when you realise that we never had less than 2000 ships afloat, and 300 to 400 in the danger zone, and of the great Armies we are nuturing,and reinforcing in the East, and of the world wide traffic we have to carry on, when you think of all this, can you wonder that it is the Battle of the Atlantic which holds the first place in the thoughts of those upon whom the responsibility for final Victory rests. - Winston Churchill

These articles make up a good cross section of the struggles of those days.

Letters - Information about Richard Lindenberg who was a U-boat captain?
06 May 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Albert Knowlton served in Ario, sunk by U-Boat U-158 off Frying Pan Shoals in WW2
07 May 2005   (Chronological date: )

Auxiliary Hospital Ship Anglia, mined off Folkestone on the 17th. of November 1915. 127, or 164 Dead
10 May 2005   (Chronological date: )

HMS Hazard, who rescued survivors of the British Hospital Ship Anglia - click to read moreHMHS Anglia was yet one more hospital ship in WW1 that was despatched by either an enemy mine or torpedo. Most of these disasters were accompanied by a large loss of life, any service personnel, especially if wounded would have thought, at last I am safe, I am aboard a Hospital ship bearing the immunity of large Red Crosses painted on the ship's side, but it proved not to be.

Wreck of HMHS Rewa, identified by Divers in 2004
21 May 2005   (Chronological date: )

HMHS Rewa torpedoed by German Submarine U-55, off the Northern coast of Cornwall on the 4th. of January 1918. Click to read moreThe wreck of Rewa was discovered by divers in September of 2003, lying upright in about 60 metres of water some 33 miles from Newquay off the Northern coast of Cornwall. She had been torpedoed by Wilhelm Werner in his U-55 on the 4th. of January 1918, the ship loaded with cot cases and walking wounded from Greece, and at the fag end of her voyage via Malta bound for Cardiff.

WW1 Hospital ship Gloucster Castle torpedoed, salvaged to serve in WW2, but be sunk by German Armed Merchant Raider Michel
21 May 2005   (Chronological date: )

Gloucester Castle torpedoed 30th. March 1915 - click to read moreAlthough well identified as a Hospital ship with her large Red crosses painted on her hull, she was torpedoed on the 30th. of March in 1915 on a trip from Le Havre to Southhampton, luck was with her, and from her 399 passengers on board, only 3 died. She did not sink and was taken in tow, the journey home for repairs taking 2 weeks, and by 1919 she was back in service in a civilian capacity, plying the route to Africa.

Letters - Wartime Sunderland exploits
24 May 2005   (Chronological date: )

Any old Iron? Canada wants to get rid of old Oberon Class Submarines.
30 May 2005   (Chronological date: )

The Canadian Navy has some very old Oberon Class Submarines, not much more than Old Iron, at this stage of their life, that they would like to dispose of. But you should give up any ideas of being Captain of your own O Class Boat standing watch on  her conning tower at sea.  They appear to be beyond recovery to allow them to sail once more in the proud way they served in the Canadian Navy over 40 years ago.

Australia's Merchant Marine in Peace and War
16 June 2005   (Chronological date: )

Australia's Merchant Marine in Peace and War - click to learn moreSome 60 different Shipping Companies have owned and operated Australian ships over the long period from the 1880's to the 1950's. Some were but small companies and maybe operated just one vessel for their own purposes, but in the main, ships carried both passengers and cargo from port to port on the Australian coast. Sadly today, the Australian Merchant Fleet has but something like 45 ships operating on our vast coastline.

Letters - How many civlians were aboard Wilhelm Gustloff?
16 June 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Rear Admiral Muirhead-Gould and the Japanese Midget attack on Sydney Harbour
16 June 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Looking for info on Pte Joseph Patrick Blake
20 June 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Colin Francis Creswell 1894 - 1917 and HMS Implacable and Sub E-47
07 January 2004   (Chronological date: )

Letters - KEITH SYKES of Geelong who was a merchant seaman on the hospital ship Centaur
25 June 2005   (Chronological date: )

An Australian magazine Broadsword, in Queensland, has just published my Japanese Submarine I-401 Found!
22 July 2005   (Chronological date: )

Broadsword Magazine - click to read the article

Letters - Was Gilbert Norman Webb Harvey aboard HMAS Canberra or HMS Hythe
27 July 2005   (Chronological date: )

Russian Sailors Rescued from Trapped AS-28 Mini Submarine
09 August 2005   (Chronological date: )

Russian Sailors Rescued from Trapped AS-28 Mini Submarine - click to read moreGreat news! the seven man crew from the trapped Russian Mini-Submarine have all been rescued. A British Remote Control Vehicle cut away the under water cable snagging the submarine to release it, and allow it to surface. The crew were able to open the deck hatch to all emerge safely. They have now been taken to the mainland and went off to hospital for medical check ups after their ordeal.

The U-Boats pens in the Bay Of Biscay ports. Built after France collapses in June of 1940
09 August 2005   (Chronological date: )

La Rochelle U-Boat pens - click to read moreVice Admiral Karl Donitz, in command of the U-Boat fleet, soon grabbed this opportunity to build almost impregnable bases in five French, Bay of Biscay ports, from North to South these were, Brest, Lorient, St Nazaire, La Rochelle, and Bordeaux. These bases would allow the U-Boats to spend an extra 10 days on patrol.

Letters - Admiral Donitz in German is spelt Dönitz ... with an 'Umlaut'
21 August 2005   (Chronological date: )

List of Royal Navy Submarines sunk during WW11 indicating where sunk, how they were sunk, and the date of loss.(Includes Midget Submarines)
21 October 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Beechwood bowl that had a small plaque inscribed “From the Officers and Men of HMA Submarine J2
25 October 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - German cruiser wreck  at Rabaul?
26 November 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Rear Admiral Gerald Muirhead-Gould
02 December 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Ambulance member who went down with the Centaur
13 December 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Image of UC 5 postcard
13 December 2005   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Correcting our Kursk article
10 January 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Trying to find out more information about the sinking of the Oronsay and the fate of her survivors
19 January 2006   (Chronological date: )

Allied Armed Merchant Cruisers of WW2
22 January 2006   (Chronological date: )

The British White Ensign worn by all of the 57 Allied Armed Merchant Cruisers of WW2 - click to read more
 As in WW1, the Royal Navy again in WW2, to augment its Naval ships made use of selected Merchant ships by converting them to Armed Merchant Cruisers. These vessels ranged from 6,000 to 22,000 tons, and were fitted out, usually with old WW1 type 6 inch guns, complemented with a meagre and totally inadequate Anti-aircraft armament. Given the title of His Majesty's Ship, and a White Ensign to fly these ships were in general, used for convoy escort work, and proved to be no match for any encounter with modern German capital ships.

The British Convoy System in Two World Wars, and winning the Battle of the Atlantic
02 February 2006   (Chronological date: )

The British Convoy System in Two World Wars, and winning the Battle of the Atlantic - click to read moreHitler on 9 October, 1939, made this comment, "Used ruthlessly, the Submarine, can today, be an extraordinary threat to Britain."

Churchill said, " Battles might be won or lost, enterprises succeed or miscarry, Territories might be gained or quitted, but, dominating all our power to carry on the war, or even keep ourselves alive, was our mastery of the ocean routes, and free approach and entry to our ports. The only thing that ever frightened me during the war was the U-Boat peril."

Letters - Correction: U-161 not involved with the sinking of SS Ario.
04 March 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Research about my uncle that was in the Merchant Navy during the second world
15 March 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Aboard DE RUYTER in the Java Sea Battle were at least three U. S. Navy personnel were aboard temporary duty for liaison and communications purposes
16 March 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Kurzignale, used on U-boats, and the history of the Enigma cipher machine and an award winning Enigma simulator
21 March 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Rewrite and correction "HM Submarine Vandal goes missing on the 24th. of February 1943. Wreck is found in 1994, and dived on in 2003"
05 April 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father served on HMS Boadicea
14 April 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Research on the BRENNAN Torpedo
20 July 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - My father's aunts perished on Athenia
16 April 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Horace L. Lindsey went down with the Jacksonville
27 April 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Able Seaman George Pringle Law of Empire Whale
28 April 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Looking for the wreck of Centaur
16 May 2006   (Chronological date: )

Belgian Trooper SS Leopoldville, sunk by U-486. Christmas eve 1944, and 783 US troops die
17 May 2006   (Chronological date: )

Belgian Trooper SS Leopoldville, sunk by U-486 - click to read moreAbout 2030 ( 8. 30 PM ) two explosions from deep within Leopoldville were heard, and the ship heeled sideways, and sank by the stern. Many of the troops were swept into the cold, rough waters off Cherbourg, the soldiers wearing heavy overcoats and equipment were soon in trouble, and many drowned. 1,400 infantrymen were saved, but 783 had lost their lives, the greatest loss suffered by US servicemen at sea, all at the hands of an enemy submarine.

Letters - Think my granddad sailed the boat which saved survivors of the Athenia
29 May 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Information about the British (or Dutch?) tugboat Bandit. It was involved in rescuing the SS Eros which was torpedoed by U-48 on June 7, 1940
29 May 2006   (Chronological date: )

U-22 sinks HMS Exmouth, 21st. of January 1940
14 June 2006   (Chronological date: )

HMS Exmouth, click to read moreU-22 lined up the escort, fired one torpedo which soon struck home, probably it hit a magazine which exploded, and the destroyer sank at 0444 ( 4. 44 AM ) taking the total company of 189 Officers and Sailors to their death.

Letters - Reuben Whitaker
23 June 2006   (Chronological date: )

US Balao Class Submarine USS Lagarto, found after 60 years in the Gulf of Siam
25 June 2006   (Chronological date: )

The memorial plaque placed on the stern of Lagarto - click to read moreThe crew of 86 from the US submarine Lagarto are part of the 3,500 US submariners who died from the 52 boats sunk in WW2. 61 years on, the US Navy has confirmed this wreck, now 100
miles off the coast of  Thailand, is that of USS Lagarto.

The Athenia Page, index to articles about Passenger Liner Athenia
01 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

Athenia index - click to read moreGiven all the interest in the sinking of the Passenger Liner Athenia on the day WW2 declared, and the fact that we have recently found some of the lists for her survivors, and those who died, we have decided to consolidate all our references to her on this site, The Athenia Page.

Submarines and ships in the Battle of the Atlantic on postage stamps
01 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - April 1945, aboard Rangitata in the convoy CU-45
01 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

Survivors from Athenia picked up by the City of Flint, to be transported to Halifax
09 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

This list from the Times of London archives indicates that the majority of these survivors rescued from the Athenia which was torpedoed by German U-Boat U-30, on Sunday the 3rd. of September 1939, were Americans.

Letters - Bernice Jansen, passenger on the Athenia
09 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

First newspaper report about Bernice Jansen being aboard Athenia when it was sunk by German U-Boat U-30, on the 3rd. of September 1939
24 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

Bernice Jansen - click to read moreAt this stage it was unknown if Bernice had survived. Its quite wonderful to get these reports from newspapers of that time. I acknowledge with thanks the generosity of Christy Velasco of California in sharing her records with AHOY.

Letters - John Easton and mother, Lily Easton, aboard Athenia when sunk.
24 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Armstrong, a stoker 1st Class, died on the HMS Mourne
24 July 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - SS Oronsay
21 August 2006   (Chronological date: )

Iron Knight sunk by Japanese Submarine I-21 in February 1943, wreck found June 2006
21 August 2006   (Chronological date: )

Iron Knight foundThe sea is forced to give up one more of it secrets so tightly held these past 63 years. The Iron Knight lies 135 meters below the surface of the Pacific Ocean, fishermen's nets snagged on her bridge, proved to be the key to her discovery.

Letters - W. C. Bowles killed whilst serving on the HMS Voltaire 09th April 1941
22 August 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Captain Walter John Manley, who was the captain of the Lorient on May 4, 1943, lost in in Convoy ONS 5
22 August 2006   (Chronological date: )

One of the US Navy's top WW2 Submarines USS Wahoo, lost in October 1943, found 63 years on by Russian Dive Team.
22 August 2006   (Chronological date: )

USS Wahoo - click to read moreThe US Wahoo Group takes as its task to seek out the whereabouts of five lost WW2 US submarines, in June of 2006, USS Legarto ( SS-371 ) was identified in the Gulf of Siam, now the wreck of USS Wahoo is found by a Russian Dive Team at the end of July 2006.

Letters - William Musgrave who was sadly killed when Voltaire was torpedoed
25 August 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Peter Costello, aged 19, lost in HMS Mourne
25 August 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father was in USS Mugford at Battle of Savo Island
06 September 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Identifying the wreck of HMS E-47
16 September 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Memorial event being held in Wrexham, north Wales, the sinking of HMS Veteran in 1942
23 September 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Also aboard Rangitata in the convoy HX-348
23 September 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - William Turner was a merchant seaman, a steward on this SS Ramillies and he was lost presumed drowned on 8th May 1941
24 September 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Interviews with Athenia survivors for an article honoring the 65th anniversary
29 September 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Jack. (John Whitehead) was a Merchant Service engineer during WW2 and was torpedoed on Nebraska
31 October 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Allen Abraham Cornell, a Submariner in the Royal Navy from 1924-1933. He served on L22, L25 and L56
05 November 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Dodd survivor of Athenia?
05 November 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Sto. E A Lindsey lost on submarine E 47, 1917
20 November 2006   (Chronological date: )

Family of seven, only three survive sinking of Athenia
24 November 2006   (Chronological date: )

Family of seven, only three survive sinking of AtheniaWork in progress


Letters - Edward Belton survived the sinking of Athenia
26 November 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Henry Cecil Cansdale lost in Empire Gold
26 November 2006   (Chronological date: )

Wreck of Japanese Midget Submarine M-24 that attacked Sydney Harbour on the 31st May/1st. of June in 1942, found at last
30 November 2006   (Chronological date: )

Wreck of Japanese Midget Submarine M-24 - click to read moreBan fired his second torpedo, to once more miss Chicago by some 4 meters, it ran aground on the East side of Garden Island, but did not blow up. Ban now successfully exited the harbour through the boom gate he had earlier entered, and took his Midget through Sydney Heads to the open sea, but never made the rendevous with his Mother Submarine, to disappear, his location and fate unknown over the next 64 years.

Athenia Manuscript authored by Judith Evelyn
05 December 2006   (Chronological date: )

Judith's Manuscript ( tied up with ribbon ) covered her sailing, being sunk, and rescued from the liner Athenia, in the first casualty of the WW2 U-Boat war in the Atlantic. The ship was sunk by U-30 on Sunday the 3rd.of September 1939 the very first day that WW2 had been declared.

93 passengers and 19 crew members died.

Saved by Walter Schmietenknop - Cover and Table of Contents
06 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Saved by Walter Schmietenknop - Chapter One
06 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

The story opens with Walter, the protagonist, as a prisoner of war on a British destroyer. He reminisces about his father’s difficulties which resulted from his Christian stance in his community.

Saved - Chapter Seven
06 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Walter is taken ashore and transferred to an American camp where he is interrogated. He is then sent back to the British.

Saved - Chapter Eight
06 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Interrogated by the British and then moved to a camp near Edinburgh where he unsuccessfully attempts to join a planned escape attempt. Shipped to the U.S.A.

Saved - Chapter Nine
06 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Life in a prisoner of war camp in Georgia. Working at various jobs. Conditions at the end of the war.

Saved by Walter Schmietenknop
07 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Walter Schmietenknop "Saved" click to read to story about surviving the sinking of U-737U-767 was detected by the British Support Group 14. Fame attacked. She reported 2-3 hits at 95 feet, and U-767 was doomed, sinking in 240 feet of water.

Only one crew member from her complement of 50 escaped, and this was Walter Schmietenknop. He was picked up by HMS Fame and now tells his remarkable story, "Saved."


Letters - James Thomas Newcombe lost in SS North Britain
13 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Margaret Ellen Taylor survived sinking of Athenia - which ship picked her up?
13 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Roy Hay sailed in HMS Malaya, HMS Snowflake
13 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Books about Convoy RB1
20 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Captain Brown, cutlery from Athenia
21 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - A. E. Howell Seaman Coder served on Northern Spray
23 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Pte Kelty MM, who had lost a leg, & was supposedly torpedoed & rescued from a hospital ship sometime between July & September 1918
27 January 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Charles Sullivan, a marine on board the HMS Trinidad (not HMS Edinburgh), was killed in the attack
03 February 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Researching "Marauders of the Sea" and the tanker Weser
08 February 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Is there a shred of evidence that would buttress the rumors of (submarine) Surcouf's disloyal and treacherous actions
14 February 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - German submarines sailing to Japan in WW2?
17 February 2007   (Chronological date: )

Operation Pastorious. German Saboteurs came by night in June of 1942
24 February 2007   (Chronological date: )

Click to read moreAdolf Hitler ordered the school to train agents whose task would be to infiltrate into the United States of America to destroy vital power plants, factories, and communications. Eight men were chosen, two naturalised citizens of the US, and six Germans who had at one time lived in the US. This group were given a crash course in the art of sabotage at Quentz Farm.

Luftwaffe attack their own Destroyers on February 22nd. 1940
03 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

The aircraft now returned machine gun fire, seemingly assuring all the ships it was an enemy plane. But Max Schulz reported this aircraft was in fact friendly, one of her lookouts had spotted a German Cross on a wing, but no one else wanted to accept that report, especially after that 1st. exchange of gunfire.

Letters - Survivor finds plaque memorializing Helen Burrows who died in the sinking of Athenia
05 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Robert Spilman served on the Empire Light and died when it got Torpedoed in 1943
10 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Wolf Packs slaughter ships in Convoys SC-7 and HX-79, in October 1940
12 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Wolf Packs slaughter ships in Convoys SC-7 and HX-79 - click to read moreThis became one of the most famous Wolf Pack attacks between the nights of October 16th to the 19th, 1940. Convoy SC7 was repeatedly attacked by a pack of seven boats, sinking 20 ships out of 34 in the convoy. The very next night, convoy HX79 was attacked with further losses of 13 ships, making a total of 33 ships in 48 hours. These attacks mounted against the two convoys came to be known as “The Night of the Long Knives”.

Letters - Jessie Clark, aboard Athenia, and the "curse" of the Clarks
13 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Florrie Treharne, survive the sinking of the Athenia in 1939?
15 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Len Hiller served on the Voltaire and became a POW
21 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Campbell (aka Ian Campbell) served on the Veteran on the convoys during WW2
21 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George F Crowe served on the Voltaire and was killed during the action on 4th April
15 April 2006   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George F Crowe served on the Voltaire and was killed during the action on 4th April
23 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Passenger aboard the Athenia when it was torpedoed
25 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

27 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Jack Wells may have been on board the Tuscan Star when it was torpedoed
31 March 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Atkinson was serving on SS Ramillies when it was torpedoed and sunk on 8th May, 1941
14 April 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Joseph Henry Warburton served in the Campbell and the Bicester between 1939 and 1945
12 May 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Tidbury survived the sinking of Voltaire, prisoner in Germany till the end of the war
13 May 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Glasgow Museum of Transport; exhibition of Athenia, contacting survivors
19 May 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Alice Apers, Florence Arthur and cousin Laura Apers survived the sinking of Athenia
16 June 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia survivor (originally evacuated to Scotland) in NYC
16 June 2007   (Chronological date: )

Survivors from Athenia rescued by Royal Navy destroyers, Escort, Electra and Fame, and landed at Gourock on the Clyde, Scotland
16 June 2007   (Chronological date: )

Athenia Survivors - click to read moreOver the years that AHOY has been trying to locate lists of survivors from the Athenia, torpedoed on Sunday the 3rd. of September 1939, the very first day of WW2, we have not found a consolidated list of those survivors rescued by Royal Navy destroyers Escort, Electra and Fame, and landed at Gourock on the Clyde at Scotland.

Letters - SS Baron Newlands and the trek of the crew to Freetown
17 June 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Angus Macpherson lost in Athenia?
18 June 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Correction: SS Volendam was torpedoed [possibly whilst carrying British children to Canada] but clearly wasn't sunk
18 June 2007   (Chronological date: )

Enemy Submarine Activity off the Australian Coast in WW2
10 July 2007   (Chronological date: )

Enemy Submarine Activity off the Australian Coast in WW2 Click to read moreOver 30 months, 27 Japanese Submarines had been busy in Australian waters, their main thrust over 12 months between June 1942 and June 1943. 18 ships, of 86,600 tons were sunk off our east coast, and the small Mamutu in northern latitudes, another 25 ships had suffered some damage when attacked, but still survived.

Billy McGee in England plans a Memorial to Raymond Victor Steed. The youngest recorded Service death in WW2.
15 July 2007   (Chronological date: )

Raymond Victor Steed - click to read moreIn WW1 many young men, indeed some were still but boys, joined the Armed Services, and a host of them died at a very young age. WW2 was no exception, and here is an example, a boy, Raymond Victor Steed, still in his 14th. year, cut down before he reached manhood.

Letters - Roderick MacDonald Smith, 2nd Mate, died in WWII on the Caledonian Monarch on 14/1/1942
21 July 2007   (Chronological date: )

A History of Submarine USS Searaven who rescued 33 Royal Australian Airforce personnel from enemy held Timor in April 1942
29 July 2007   (Chronological date: )

USS Searaven - click to read moreThe adventures of this party constitute what may be one of the most graphic and dramatic escapes in Australian war history.

Letters - HMHS Glenart Castle was not the sole Hospital ship in WW1 to collect a torpedo
29 July 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Arthur Davidson from Grimsby, skipper of HMS Lord Nuffield (Trawler)
29 July 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Ports and airfields U.S. used in Australia during WWII
04 August 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia passengers: George Bihun (age 16),William Bihun (age 14),Walter Bihun (age 12)
02 March 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Searching for HMS X5 for the past 35 years in Arctic Norway
02 March 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lieutenant- Commnader R.E. Sherwood, R.N.R. in his smart frigate Tay
10 August 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Tankard presented to people who went to Athenia's rescue
15 August 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - French Submarine Surcouf LIFE Photos
24 April 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Tuscan Star torpedoed 6th Sept. 1942
26 April 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Pictures of the SS City of Benares?
07 May 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Two ships named Athenia
26 August 2007   (Chronological date: )

US Submarine Grunion probably found on August 22nd 2007 after her mysterious disappearance 65 years ago
26 August 2007   (Chronological date: )

US Submarine Grunion probably found - click to read moreOnce again the dedication and love of three sons coupled with that vital ingredient PERSISTENCE, has been rewarded with what appears to be the finding of the wreck of the USS submarine Grunion, lost for over 65 years in the icy waters around Alaska.

Letters - My father is a survivor from the SS Athenia Sep. 3, 1939
09 September 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Berta Rapp, Osias Rapp were survivors of the sinking of the Athenia
09 September 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lost in sinking of SS Jacksonville, World War II
09 September 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Morrison from Detroit, Mich, Athenia passenger?
23 September 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Elizabeth and Margaret Orr, survivors of Athenia
29 September 2007   (Chronological date: )

Margaret and Elizabeth Orr both survived the sinking of RMS Athenia on Sunday the 3rd. of September 1939. Margo Farnworth's artifacts from her Mother and Grand Mother
02 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Athenia artifacts from the Orr family - click to read moreMargo Farnsworth of Calgary Canada has written to me to indicate that her Mother and Grand Mother, Margaret and Elizabeth Orr had both survived the Athenia sinking. In December 1939, her Grand Father made up a special scrap book for his wife Elizabeth, it is now in Margo's possession, and holds some press reports from both sides of the Atlantic, the plan of the ship's accommodation, three telegrams sent to her family by Elizabeth, a survivor list of passengers and crew members, and a list of those survivors who needed hospitalisation in Glasgow.

Letters - Leslie John Holder, Radio Operator on duty who received the SOS from the ATHENIA after being torpedoed
04 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Two totally different Submarine Campaigns in WW2: The German U-Boats and the Battle of The Atlantic, and the US Submarine Fleet in the war against Japan in the Pacific
04 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Two totally different Submarine Campaigns in WW2 - click to read moreIn the Battle of the Atlantic over a long period of WW2, the German U-Boats waged a bitter battle against the Allied Merchant Ships in Convoy and their Escorts. In the Pacific, US Submarines choked off the Japanese Merchant Fleet, and their tankers carrying vital petroleum products to the Homeland, to bring that country to its knees.

Letters - George Sneddon lost on Athenia?
14 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Nickolas Gash, Athenia survivor
23 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

A report about HMS Electra and the sinking and rescue of some of her passengers, by Able Seaman Jack Taylor
24 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia Research, Museum of Transport, Glasgow
24 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Florence Kelly Roseman & her mother, Mary Kelly, survived Athenia
25 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - LCDR Robert T. Stagner Jr. USN was assigned Brisbane. during the war I believe on S-46
27 October 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Thanks to Kevin Pickering of Shipwreck Films
01 November 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - James Heaps, a survivor of HMS Mourne on the 15th of June 1944
25 November 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - James A. Goodson survived sinking of Athenia
30 November 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - William Frederick Lloyd lost on Mourne
30 November 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Rose Griffin survived sinking of Athenia
03 December 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Gerald Hutchinson, oldest living survivor of SS Athenia?
16 December 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia lifeboat survives on Stronsay, part of the Orkney Islands
17 December 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - SS Athenia Glasgow Museums update, pictures and keys which came from Athenia's silver room
04 January 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Silven R. Hunt wasaboard the  Ill Fated Block Island Carrier .. and the Guadalcanal
04 January 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Bill was a young 20 year old sailor on the river class frigate HMS Mourne
04 January 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Duncan MacKenzie Wood Sr., wife Ann Scott Wood, and their son Duncan MacKenzie Wood Jr., all survived the sinking of the ATHENIA
24 January 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - U-192
27 January 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Pass of Balmaha, renamed Walter, On December 21, 1916 she sailed as Seeadler under command of Kapitanleutnant Felix von Luckner
27 January 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Arthur and Lily Moses, were aboard the Athenia when she was torpedoed
02 March 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Margaret Ray Hodge and Jocelyn M. Hodge survivied the sinking of Athenia
02 March 2008   (Chronological date: )

Britain launches first mammoth Submarine in the Astute Class of 4 new boats
03 March 2008   (Chronological date: )

Britain launches first mammoth Submarine in the Astute Class - click to read moreBritain launched a massive sub that can hear a ship from across the Atlantic in June 08, 2007. She is four years late and a massive $900 million over-budget. (Wonder what Total Cost is?)  But when the Royal Navy's super-sub HMS Astute finally arrived, she made for an awesome sight. An incredible new submarine to break all previous records in size, equipment, armament etc.

Letters - Owen Griffiith Lloyd, HMS Veteran
04 March 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Frank Watson served on H.M.S. Escort, picked up survivors from S.S. Athenia
16 March 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Owen Griffith Lloyd served in HMS Veteran
01 April 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Ralph Claude Hilton Jones, who died when HMS Mourne was sunk by U-767, June 1944
08 April 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Liberty ship Liberty ship Roger B Taney torpedoed in the South Atlantic on the 2nd. of July 1943
08 April 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Jessie Lowe (Jessie Makay) a nurse/stewardess on the Athenia?
29 April 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Linda Dalton survived sinking of Athenia
03 May 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Frederick (Fred) Brindley (90 yrs old on 7th June '08) was onboard The HMS Duke of York
15 May 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Royce L. "Goggy" Gross, USS Seawolf
19 August 2007   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Wooden hammer/mallet which was used at the launching of the Athenia
14 June 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Torpedo attack and sinking of the French Ship De-La-Salle
21 June 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Captain Walter John Manley
27 June 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - David Murray from Glasgow was the Captains steward on Athenia on that eventful night in 1939
29 August 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Tommy McLaughlin served on Athenia
29 August 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Aknowledging the quotes from John Stone, and other paraphrasing of Craig Allen's script, from the ABC Stateline, ABC News Canberra in our story about the sinking of Iron Knight
30 August 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Story of the Athenia, its victims and survivors, could work well as a documentary
30 August 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Horace George Moss, Royal Naval Rating - Signaller J.12422 (CH) was on HMS Pathfinder when she went down on the 5 September 1914
01 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - James Swan, 21 years old in September 1939, survived sinkings of Athenia and Gracia
09 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Sinking of the Rodger B Taney
11 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Willie Jenkins survived sinking of Athenia
14 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - David Murray Captain's Steward on Athenia
21 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Uncle was a member of the crew (age 20) on the Arandora Star when it was torpedoed and sunk in 1940
27 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - German U-Boat U9
28 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

A nice letter from Syndal Probus Club
30 September 2008   (Chronological date: )

I spoke to them on the morning of Wednesday 24th. of September, my subject: Enemy Submarine Activity off the Australian Coast in WW2.

Letters - Survivors of the Athenia
04 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia & Electra's arrival date in Greenock
09 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Richard Blake sole survivor of submarine Sickle, 1944
21 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Manifest for the passengers that boarded the S.S. Athenia in 1939?
27 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Air purification of Subs in WW1
27 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Wormald, lost in sinking Empire Lake 15 July 1943 - Looking for survivors of SS Empire Lake
30 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - SS Athenia, Glasgow to Montreal around 1935
30 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Adm Ortoli, former CO of FSS SURCOUF (1940 – 1941)
30 October 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Submarine I-401, largest of WWII submarines
09 November 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Picture of HMS Mourne K261
18 November 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Moresby's plaque in Holy Trinity Church, Fareham
19 November 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters -

HMAT Shropshire WW1

21 November 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Eric Jenkins sailor who went down with the Caledonian Monarch
21 November 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Images: Easter Greeting card, H.M.S. Electra. dated 1940, H.M.S. Rodney 1944, H.M.S. Suffolk 1932, H.M.S. Repulse, H.M.S. Renown
22 November 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letter of thanks from an Athenia survivor, to the CO and crew of HMS Electra, one of the rescue destroyers
23 November 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letter of thanks from an Athenia survivor, to the CO and crew of HMS Electra, one of the rescue destroyers - click to read the article

Letters - Ernest Parcell, usually known as "Ernie" an instrument maker in the workshops at the Frythe
07 December 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Barbara Bailey, Athenia survivor
07 December 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Sydney John Gibbins, Aircraftman 1st Class, served in HMS Courageous
13 December 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Hollaway/Tanner server in Empire Mersey and in Empire Whale
13 December 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Peter Nelson Bekusch and John Nelson Bekusch survived sinking of Athenia
29 December 2008   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Grandfather, David Don, was on the SS Athenia when it was torpedoed
14 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Albert Augustus Wolff in Athenia 1, sunk by German U-Boat, U-53 on August 16 in 1917
19 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Percy W Gore lost in sinking of S.S Cortes
19 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - "Eadie" rescued from the Athenia?
19 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Original Marconi grams that I have concerning the sinking of the SS Athenia
22 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Identification cards from the ship Athenia
31 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Location of the Cheshire at the sinking of the SS Leopoldville?
15 February 2009   (Chronological date: )

Bizarre Meeting. Two atomic powered submarines, one British, one French crash into each other in the vast reaches of the Atlantic Ocean.
19 February 2009   (Chronological date: )

The odds of two independently operating Nuclear powered submarines running into one another given the vast amount of sea room available  in  the Atlantic Ocean must be enormous.

Letters - Lona Marie (nee Attfield) Manning survived sinking of Athenia
20 February 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Rachel Adair McBride Lamont and Alexander Lamont survived sinking of Athenia
20 February 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMAS Nizam and HMS Foxhound picked up survivors from Dutch ship, Gaasterkerk, torpedoed on the 8th of October 1942
18 March 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Agnes McFarlane who we believe was killed with her daughter Gladys on the Athenia
18 March 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Joseph Stanyer killed on SS Empire Newcomen?
29 March 2009   (Chronological date: )

New book on Athenia by Cay Rademacher
05 April 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Harry ( Reginald ) Holt  lost in torpedo attack, HMS Culver
11 April 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMS Culver - Harold (Reginald) Holt
18 April 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Archibald Parkes McColough was a stoker on the Glenart Castle on its last voyage
20 April 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - IJN Exchange Officers to German U-Boats?
03 May 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Mcewan survivied sinking of Athenia
20 May 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Brin Submarine - Italian Navy World War II
07 June 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Spoon with Athenia crest
14 June 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Walter Costick was one of 13 survivors of  HMS Culver
25 July 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - The first US mini sub was not built till 1955
25 July 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - David McLean survived the sinking of the HMS Voltaire
25 July 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Ernest Claude Baxter served in Le Tigre, lost in HMS Ellesmere which was sunk by U-boat 1203
18 August 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Contacting SS Athenia survivors?
18 August 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Submarine E 47, 1917 crew: ERA John Curwen Tomlinson
20 August 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Uncle served in RFA Aldersdale sunk in PQ 17 Arctic Convoy
20 August 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lost when S.S. Drina was torpedoed
28 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Ada May Waterman, was aboard Athenia when it was torpedoed in 1939. She survived.
31 August 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Robert (Bob) Bryson MacArthur Sim an engineer survived the torpedoeing of SS Athenia
02 September 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMS Research
04 September 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Martha Goddard, Athenia
04 September 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - 70th anniversary of the sinking of Athenia
14 September 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Late father was a chef on board the Oronsay
28 January 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Bernice Jansen, missionary on Athenia
10 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Harry Morgan MN died with the infamous sinking of the Collier, Empire Lake off Madagascar in 1943
12 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Edward Stanley lost in hospital ship Centaur
12 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Arthur J Dickson survived Saranac, steamer tanker torpedoed 25/06/1940
17 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Joan Hecht Lorber, SS Athenia survivor, R.I.P
20 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - SS City of Benares
23 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Victor Cooke Robinson served as 2nd Engineer on the Bengore Head
25 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Search for the personal stories of the people onboard of the Athenia
31 October 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Harriet Barrington killed on the Athenia
06 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Mrs. Hannah Baird lost in Athenia sinking
08 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Family of 7, only 3 survive Ewdokia Kucharczuk and her three children: sons, Stefan and Jakeb, and daughter Aleksandra were among those killed in sinking of Athenia
10 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Survivor of Athenia
11 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Walter Schmietenknop U 767
11 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Walter Schmietenknop, U-767 Survivor
14 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Albert Knowlton lost in SS Ario
20 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Daniel Honan, Merchant Seaman
27 November 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Merlin Flint killed in action in H.M.S. President III
07 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Jerome Furmanm killed on the SS Jacksonville in 1944
17 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Mary (Park) Blais, a survivor of the September sinking of the Athenia?
18 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Hospital ship Centaur discovered off Queensland coast
20 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Donald Roy MacRae - who was the Master of the S.S. Cortes when she was sunk on the 26th September 1941
21 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Cook aboard HMS Auraniam; attacked by U-123 under the command of Reinhard Hardegen
28 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMS Springbank when it was sunk by U-201
28 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Graham Wallace was a sub-lieutenant in HMS Gould when she was sunk in 1944
30 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Maria (or Mary) Dick (nee Webster) survived sinking of Athenia
31 December 2009   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Knight.I sailed in Bengore Head as a deck apprentice when Capt. Quail was in command
02 January 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Convoy HX 126
20 January 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - S.S. Winona
23 January 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Walter Adaszynski survived sinking of Athenia
23 January 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lance Sergeant Samuel Heales lost in SS Galway Castle
26 January 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMAS Platypus photo?
28 January 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMS Narwhal
07 February 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Eric Barker who died on the ss North Britain in Atlantic Convoy ONS5
07 February 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Arthur Richard Reading, survived the sinking of HMS Springbank
09 February 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Information on the RSS Orama?
10 February 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George F Crowe, killed in HMS Voltaire
11 February 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Henry Cansdale (Empire Gold) was my Uncle
15 February 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Cornelius Johannes Smith perished on board the Galway Castle when it was torpedoed in 1918?
23 February 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Stan Mayes served in Conakrian and Viking Star and others in WW2
16 March 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Eugeniusz Kowalski may have been working on S/S Warszawa
16 March 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Jack Doherty, ships cook the Volendam  
16 March 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Harold William Chipperton, Royal Artillery, was on the HMAT Warilda when it was torpedoed and sunk on Aug 3 1918
21 March 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - John Sidney Lazarus, radio operator, lost in S.S. City of Benares
29 March 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Operation Deadlight. Father served on H M S Loch Tarbert at the end of WW2
07 April 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia sinking, 1939, survivors
11 April 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - 1944 Leopoldville tragedy
17 April 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Leonard Robert Sykes, Walda Katrina Sykes, Shirley Margaret Sykes, survived sinking of Athenia
20 April 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Request for Athenia Survivor Source List
24 April 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Photos of Japanese Submarine I-401 surrendering Sept 6 1945
19 May 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Request for Official (newspaper source) of Athenia Survivors?
26 May 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds  awarded to Fregattenkapitän Albrecht Brandi
09 June 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Possibly HMAS Platypus
23 June 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia was built in Glasgow
24 June 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Photo of the Athenia
29 June 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Thomas Holloway missing in HMS Mourne, 15 June 1944
29 June 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Joseph and Elnetta Macdonald survive sinking of Athenia?
18 July 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Peter Birchall was amongst those 93 passengers who died when Athenia sank
21 July 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMHS Somersetshire
10 August 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Able Seaman Leonard Tucker of the Royal Navy lost on Empire Gold
15 August 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Chief Petty Officer Tremba in the Sea Raven which rescued 33 brave Australians
23 August 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMAS Otway Museum Holbrook is up and running
22 September 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - SS Ophelia or SS Huntley picture?
22 September 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Joseph Power (fireman) died in one of the three life rafts after sinking of in April 1941 of the SS Beaverdale
26 September 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - City of Benares - RAAF rescue
27 September 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Patrick C Ryan ex RN 221024, who was a survivor from HMS Culver when it sank in Jan/42
02 October 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Kapt Juergen Von Rosenstiel U-502 and Sinking of Surcouf
02 October 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Duncan Cowx, a midget sub operator in WW2?
02 October 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Richard Hector Walsh telegraphist lost in sinking of HMS Mourne
03 October 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lt Cmdr Hugh Crofton Simms, RN., Capt of H.M.S Hurricane
11 October 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Ill Fated USS Block Island Carrier and history class
06 November 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Escape via a Torpedo Tube?
20 November 2010   (Chronological date: )

Ewald Uechtritz, caught up in WW2, was to serve in the German U-Boat arm on opposite sides to his former class mates
20 November 2010   (Chronological date: )

Here is a fascinating story of a former School Captain, Ewald Uechtritz (1935-1938) who had a German Father.

Letters - Information about Liberty ship Roger B Taney
28 November 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - 61 strong contingent of South African Air Force aboard Rangitata when it left Cape Town on the 2nd of September 1943
12 December 2010   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Cpt HK Taylor, served at Garden Island with Bob Quinn who wrote about Welfreighter mini-subs
30 December 2011   (Chronological date: )

Jens Ringbom, working on the Hansa the night she was torpedoed
30 January 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Was Hannah Baird was the first Canadian (and merchant mariner) killed as a result of enemy action in WWII?
01 February 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lt. John Francis Fairbanks, Jr., USNA class of 1932, was the XO of the Edsall when it was attacked and sunk on March 1, 1942
02 February 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Sinking of SS Siagon, account by C.L. Wiles, R.A.
26 February 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Operated X-Craft 4 man submarines (Mk. 5 )
06 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Peter McLaughlin Simpson was a cook in the SS Athenia, pre 1939
06 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Not able to find a voyage by Somersetshire from India to UK just before the start of WW2
13 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lucy Marston, lost on Athenia, her daughter Aileen Scott Philipsen survived
13 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Barbara Rodman Wilson, Athenia survivor
17 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Radio Officer of the Athenia when Lemp torpedoed her in September 1939?
19 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - U.S.S. Griffin AS13 was the ship that escorted the six S. Boats to Brisbane
23 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

Today in Submarine Force History March 24, 2011
26 March 2011   (Chronological date: )

USS LANCETFISH (SS-296) was decommissioned after serving the shortest-ever term as a commissioned naval vessel

Letters - Liberty ship Roger B Taney and Coast Guart Cutter Taney
25 January 2010   (Chronological date: )

A Night to Remember by John B. Manbeck
01 April 2011   (Chronological date: )

She piqued my interest when she said that she had spent a night in a leaky lifeboat in 1939.

WHO’S  SORRY  NOW? by Liam Nolan
03 April 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Story on Barbara Wilson's Athenian ordeal
03 April 2011   (Chronological date: )

US President Woodrow Wilson on April 6, 1917 declared
04 April 2011   (Chronological date: )

Germany's unrestricted U-Boat warfare was only too successful, by the end of February 1917, 781,000 tons of shipping had been sent to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.

Letters - Alice & Kathleen Michie survivied sinking of Athenia
08 April 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Family Kowalski - 2010 letters from Eugeniusz Kowalaski and Robert Akerstrom
08 April 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - William Turner was lost in SS RamiIlles 1941 sinking by U-97
03 June 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Lawrence George Pieretti lost on MV Nottingham
18 July 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - SS Ceramic
11 September 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia pillow
11 September 2011   (Chronological date: )

The U-Boats that Surrendered, Operation Deadlight By Derek Waller
26 September 2011   (Chronological date: )

The Royal Navy’s Operation Deadlight, which was the executive action which led to the sinking of 116 German U-Boats off Northern Ireland between 27 November 1945 and 12 February 1946, was the culmination of the long-held determination of the British Government to ensure the total elimination of the German Navy’s submarine fleet after the end of WW2.

The U-Boats that Surrendered, U-Boats in the Royal Navy post-May 1945 by Derek Waller
26 September 2011   (Chronological date: )

At the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, 156 U-Boats surrendered. Of these, 10 were allocated to each of the three Allies (UK, USA and USSR) later in the year, one was repaired and commissioned into the French Navy, four were repaired and commissioned into the Norwegian Navy, three were scrapped in the Norwegian ports in which they had surrendered, two were sunk by the US Navy in February 1946, and 116 were sunk by the Royal Navy in Operation Deadlight between November 1945 and February 1946.

Letters - Herbert Schofiel survivor on the SS Empire Gold, torpedoed in the Atlantic in WW2
13 October 2011   (Chronological date: )

Salvage of SS Garisoppa carrying a fortune in silver sunk in 1941
13 October 2011   (Chronological date: )

Click to read more

Navy divers find uncharted submarine off Rabaul, Papua New Guinea
04 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

TWO Australian and New Zealand mine hunters have discovered what is believed to be the wreck of a World War II Japanese submarine off Rabaul's Simpson Harbour in Papua New Guinea.

Letters - Surcouf Article
04 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Were Lydia Pemberton and Bertha Pemberton Survivors on the Athenia survivor list?
04 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Either Hazel or May Toon survived the sinking of Ahenia
13 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

Collins Class Submarines
13 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - I do not think that the British had broken the German Code that was used to control their Armed Merchant Raiders
13 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Udo Heilmann, U-97
27 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia survivor, Jessie Graham from Glasgow
27 November 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Saw the Surcouf in Halifax in 1941
06 December 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - British Hospital ship with the name Warilda, and torpedoed and sunk on 03-08-1918
19 December 2011   (Chronological date: )

The Fate of the Japanese Submarines which Surrendered in 1945 - The Development of Allied Policy by Derek Waller
08 January 2012   (Chronological date: )

The Potsdam Agreement signed by the British, Americans and Russians on 2 August 1945 sealed the fate of the majority of the Kriegsmarine U-Boats which had surrendered at the end of the European war. The result of the decisions at Potsdam was that 118 U-Boats which had surrendered on either side of the Atlantic were sunk in deep water before 15 February 1946, and that each of the three Allies was allowed to retain only 10 U-Boats for testing and experimental purposes. Additionally, the Potsdam Agreement determined the fate of four of the seven ex-U-Boats which had surrendered under the Japanese flag to the Royal Navy in Singapore and Indonesia in August 1945 at the end of the war in the Far East.

The U-Boats that Surrendered - U-1407 (HMS Meteorite) in the Royal Navy - 1945 to 1949 - by Derek Waller
08 January 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Image of HMHS Asturias
12 February 2012   (Chronological date: )

Page 1 - Page 1
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: )

It was seventeen years since I had visited my native land, and now after a period of saving, planning, and preparing, I was truly on my wa to England again...

Page 2 - Page 2
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: )

...Danzig and the Polish Corridor. England was negotiating with Russia an all in all they were sure Hitler would be afraid to start anthing againast such a powerful opposition...

Page 3 - Page 3
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: )

...letter saying the sailing of the "Scythia" had been cancelled, but the7y would make further arrangements. The following Wednesday I go a phone message to say I could get a reservation on the "Athenia" sailing September 2nd from Liverpool...

Page 4 - Page 4
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: ) most of my friends, I was rushed off to try to catch the Express. We just made it as the train was 10 minutes late and the train was crowded with people returning unexpectedly from their vacations all looking doubtfull as to the future...

Page 5 - Page 5
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: )

...standstill, there were bus drivers and cab drivers, man and women with tears in their eyes. It was a pathetic sight. I also saw hundreds and hundreds of Scotch soldiers in the kilds with Knapscaks on their back, evendently enroute to join their regiments...

Page 6 - Page 6
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: )

...people for twenty-five years. We didn't sail until 3:30 P. M. and it seemed I couldn't get settles. I didn't feel a bit like unpacking my suitcases. I took out my bathrobe and one or two dresses and hung them up. The then went around the ship and heard protests from passengers who were disappointed in their berths...

Page 7 - Page 7
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: ) cabin, washed, and changed my dres(s) for dinner. I took my coat and had with me as I decided to come back on deck right after. Mrs. Townley said she didn't feel well, but she ate dinner and we both went up on deck and found a seat starboard of the hatchway...

Page 8 - Page 8
26 February 2012   (Chronological date: )

...We found a pail in the boat and started to bail out the water. We seemd to be crowded and two fo the young boys who were rowing I discovered, were stewards from the Athenia...

Page 9 - Page 9
02 March 2012   (Chronological date: ) we did, so we were ablr to discern other life boats close to it. We started to light the flares that we found on the boart.. I held them up and we tried hard to put toward that ship but it seemed we could not get any nearer..

Page 10 - Page 10
02 March 2012   (Chronological date: ) American Freighter "The City of Flint" was on her way to give aid and to pick up the Americans and Canadians who wanted to continue enroute to America...

Page 11 - Page 11
02 March 2012   (Chronological date: )

...remainder of the voyage and worked hard toward helping to feed us all. Then there was a young doctor who worked night and day attending the sick and injured and it was by no means easy...He treated my hand which I had burned rather badly holding up the lighted flares...

Page 12 - Page 12
02 March 2012   (Chronological date: )

...The sailors set about making little shoes out of rope for the children...and one day they gave the kiddies a birthday party...

Page 13 - Page 13
02 March 2012   (Chronological date: )

...I heard Bing Crosby's voice and I cried for joy, because then I know we were getting near home.  Monday night a rumor went around that a submarine was sighted off Newfoundland...

Page 14 - Page 14
02 March 2012   (Chronological date: )

...I can't describe the joy...

Rhonda Thomas' personal account - "Experiences of an Athenia Survivor"
02 March 2012   (Chronological date: )

Athenia artifacts from the Orr family - click to read moreAfter Athenia was sunk on day one of WW2 a great deal was written about the loss and we decided to devote the Athenia Pages to the subject on our AHOY site. The latest addition is an account by Rhonda Thomas of her experiences in that ship on the day of the torpedoing. 

Nothing beats the written personal account of a survivor, and this piece adds to our knowledge and understanding of a momentous event on the very first day of the start of WW2.

Letters - Marianne Osterman (Marianne F Kaye) Athenia Survivor
10 March 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - "Ruth" Letter; Athenia Survivor
15 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - SS Ceramic Collision with SS Testbank
13 January 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Albert Ransome, my father, HMS Voltaire
19 January 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Margaret Florence Heap, Athenia survivor transported to Canada on the City of Flint?
23 August 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - AE2 sunk near Dardanelles
02 May 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Wilhemina Greer and Sylvia ( Greer ) Love survived sinking for Athenia
20 May 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HECTOR JOHN MCKENZIE Stoker PettyOfficer on Escort when she was on the rescue of ATHENIA survivors
20 May 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Robert Goodall travelled to Canada in the Athenia, Donaldson Brothers Ltd.circa 1880?
17 February 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Daniel Vernal who died on the SS Saint Barchan in 1918
17 February 2013   (Chronological date: )

The Saga Of American Freighter City of Flint
19 May 2013   (Chronological date: )

An SOS had been read by an empty Norwegian Tanker, Knute Nelson, a luxury steam yacht Southern Cross from Norway, three British Destroyers Escort, Electra, Fame, who were escorting HMS Renown, and finally a United States freighter SS City of Flint.

Letters - David G Vowles and Anne Vowles were survivors of the Athenia
09 June 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - David Sinclair Simpson one of the two passengers lost in the De la Salle on July 9th 1943
12 June 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Total number of submarine losses for all countries during the WW2?
23 July 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia Survivor: Mrs. Kate Williams of Victoria, BC - deceased
06 May 2011   (Chronological date: )

Letters - 1939 British Pathe newsreel about survivors of the Athenia sinking, including 2 eyewitness accounts
04 September 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Sgt. Mach. Karel van Dijk was on the Dutch Submarine 0 19 when it hit Ladd Reef
18 March 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - New book: Athenia Torpedoed
21 October 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Florence Barrett - Athenia
26 October 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Hannah Baird. Voici un article publié dans le Québec Hebdo.
06 November 2012   (Chronological date: )

The Laconia Incident
07 November 2012   (Chronological date: )

Realizing his error, Hartenstein immediately launched a rescue operation. Hundreds of survivors were picked up, including civilian women and children, with many crammed inside the submarine, on the upper deck and a further 200 survivors in tow aboard four lifeboats.

Letters - Hannah Baird Information/Sinking of the Athenia
18 July 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Great Grand Mother worked on the SS Athenia
11 August 2012   (Chronological date: )

SS Strathallan torpedoed by U-562 December 21st. 1942, 250 Nurses and 4,000 troops are rescued
25 August 2007   (Chronological date: )

Strathallan on fireStrathallan took part in Operation Torch, the Algerian landings in North Africa on November 1st. 1942. The following month she left the Clyde on the 12th. her destination Oran, having loaded 250 Queen Alexandra Nurses, and 4,000 British and US troops.

22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Oil painting of the Athenia painted just before her fateful trip
22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia menus
22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Timothy Emmett Madden who I believe was a sailor who was in the ship Roger B Taney
22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - James Firth lost in Submarine Vandal 24/2/1943
22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Thomas Hutton, Fireman was on the SS Drina that sank
22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - My father served as first radio officer on the Oronsay when it was torpedoed in 1942
22 April 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Hannah Baird was the first Canadian casulaty WW II
20 May 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Mary (Fraser) Donald, Heather (Donald) Watts survived sinking of Athenia
20 May 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - HMS SICKLE - sole survivor was RICHARD BLAKE
21 May 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Painting of SS Valdemossa rescuing children from SS Volendam in Aug 1940 after being torpedoed by U-60
21 May 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Father was an ASDIC operator on the Sickle when she was lost in June 1944
09 July 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Stoker Arthur Draper served on the
submarine HMS Porpoise
30 September 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Hannah Baird, first Canadian casulaty of WW II
30 September 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Athenia Survivor Mary McLeod
14 October 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - RMS ORAMA 1 or ORAMA II? Correction
22 September 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Navy pauses to remember the loss of HMA Submarine AE1, lost 14 September 1914
30 September 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Was Mary Rushton a passenger on Athenia?
25 November 2012   (Chronological date: )

Athenia Survivors from Knute Nelson landed at Galway
25 November 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Were Bruce Cutler and to-be-wife Annie Waller were destined to board SS Athenia?
08 December 2012   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Charles McKenzie from Aberdeen sailed on the SS New York
08 December 2012   (Chronological date: )

The U-Boats versus Convoy SC121
08 September 2013   (Chronological date: )

On March 6, 1943, 59 ships formed up as SC121 and sailed out of Sydney, Breton Island in Canada, bound for Liverpool UK...Too few escorts caused SC121 to lose fourteen ships with one more damaged.

Letters - How to reach author of  SUBS DOWN UNDER - SS42
08 September 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - George Bennetts was one of the casualties HMS E47
19 January 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Grandfather lost his life in WW1 when HMS Louvain p was torpedoed by the German UC22 submarine
04 February 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Matthew Ingram was on the H.M Trawler Ellesmere which was went down on the 24th Feb 1945
03 March 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Eric Dixon, Third Officer, died on the raft after sinking of Rio Azul
05 May 2013   (Chronological date: )

Letters - Fredrick Thomas Pearson, Athenia Steward Prior to 2 September 1939?
05 May 2013   (Chronological date: )

In WW1, German U-Boat U9, destroys three elderly British Light Cruisers, Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy in under 75 minutes
22 January 2005   (Chronological date: 1914-09-22)

U9 - click to read moreIn the early days of WW1, Cruiser Force C, made up of old Cressy class armoured cruisers patrolled part of the North Sea close to the Hook of Holland. Senior Naval Officers were opposed to this patrol on the grounds that these ships were very vulnerable to any attack from Germany's more modern surface ships, and advised the Admiralty accordingly. This patrol was nicknamed: "The live bait patrol." Nonetheless, my Lords of the Admiralty ignored this advice, and persisted with this operation ...

The Battle For Convoy ONS 5. 26th.April - 6th. May 1943
26 April 2004   (Chronological date: 1942-04-06)

Atlantic Star award - click to read the article.Outward North Atlantic Slow Five, short name ONS 5, with a code name of MARFLEET, was made up of 43 merchant ships, in the main they could be classified as elderly, their destination Halifax in Nova Scotia, with a few ships destined for New York and Boston. This motley band of grey vessels with their names painted out had sailed from five ports, Milford Haven, Liverpool, the Clyde, Oban, and Londonderry.

Japanese Midget Submarines Attack Sydney Harbour on the night of May31/June 1, 1942
30 April 2002   (Chronological date: 1942-05-31)

Midget sub - click to read the articleOn May the 11th. 1942, the Japanese 8th Squadron Submarines, I-22, I-27, and I-28, having been involved in the Coral Sea operation were ordered to Truk to embark Midget Submarines, it was planned to attack Naval targets at either Suva or Sydney.

SS Ceramic, a victim of U-515 on the 7th. of December 1942
23 July 2003   (Chronological date: 1942-12-07 )

The SS Ceramic - click to read the articleWhen steaming west of the Azores on the 7th. of December 1942 the Ceramic was sighted and then stalked by the German U-Boat U-515. We have already made the acquaintance of this boat and her Captain Werner Henke. The weather was cold with rough seas and the time about 2000. ( 8 PM ) Then Henke struck with one torpedo, and several minutes after this explosion, two more hits were made in the engine room.


German Radio called it "Greatest Convoy Battle of all Time." 40 U-Boats carve up Convoys SC122 and HX229. 16-19 March 1943.
29 April 2005   (Chronological date: 1943-03-11)

B-24 Very Long Range Aircraft used to cover Convoys SC122 and HZ229 - click to read moreThe whole scenario was only saved from being a total disaster by the fact that surface reinforcements came in from Iceland, but more importantly, the air umbrella flown by VLR B-24's, B-17's and Sunderlands found many of the attacking U-Boats and forced them to keep their heads down, and a real plus for the aircraft, U-384 was sunk. In all, 54 sorties were flown over the two convoys, the aircraft reporting sighting 32 boats, and attacking them 21 times, a busy time for all the airmen involved.

Destroyer Escort USS England, Japanese Submarine Killer Supreme
06 June 2004   (Chronological date: 1944-05-19)

USS England, champion submarine killer - click to read the articleOver a 12 day period in the last two weeks of May in 1944, the Destroyer Escort USS England accounted for 6 Japanese Submarines. I-16, RO-106, RO-104, RO- 116, RO-108 and RO-105 were all sunk. This was a record number of kills, unsurpassed in WW2.

French Submarine La Perle, who wants friends that sink you?
12 July 2003   (Chronological date: 1944-07-08)

Submarine hulls of a boat similar to La Perle - Click to read the article

There seems little doubt that HMCS Dunver, the ship in which SOE was embarked, would have received signals with information about La Perle and her Atlantic crossing. At the subsequent Board of Inquiry, Stephen's gave evidence that he had not seen the sailing orders of La Perle from St John's, and was unaware of the bombing restrictions in force until after the fatal attack. He however did acknowledge that the most recent signal received from Western Approaches did place La Perle close to the Swordfish sighting. He should have been more careful with his use of attacking aircraft.

Korvettenkapitan ( granted postumously ) Werner Henke. A top U-Boat Ace.
19 July 2003   (Chronological date: 1944-07-18 )

Werner Henke - Click to read the articleOn the 18th. of July 1944 Admiral Donitz issued the following day order for his U-Boat force:

"Commander Kapitanleutnant Werner Henke, recipient of the Knights Cross with Oak Leaves to the Iron Cross, was killed during an attempt to escape from captivity. We have lost one of our best. He combined reckless daring with prudence and outstanding ability. He proved himself against convoys, independent merchantships and warships, and sinking 26 ships for a total of 166,000 tons, one cruiser and one destroyer. We strike the colors for a man of iron and a brave fighter who was an inspiring example to his crew, and for a good comrade. The struggle against the enemy, in which he was killed, will continue."

U-Boat U-482, Success, then lost with all hands
21 June 2003   (Chronological date: 1945-01-16)

The British Admiralty, in a more recent assessment about the destruction of U-482, have now stated that the cause of her loss is unknown. But the most probable cause is: She sank with all hands after striking a mine.

Thus the actual cause of U-482's demise is unlikely to ever be uncovered, as she became yet another victim in the long running saga of The Battle of The Atlantic.

U-Boat 869 believed sunk off Gibraltar in 1945, turns up on the bottom off New Jersey, USA.
12 July 2003   (Chronological date: 1991-12-9 )

Actual loacation of U-869 - Click to read the articleReported to have been sunk on the 28th. of February 1945, off Gibraltar by the US Destroyer Escort USS Fowler, and the French Sub Chaser L'Indescret, was the German U-Boat, U-859. Not so apparently, this boat had been ordered to move her operational area from off shore America to close to Gibraltar by Admiral Donitz of U-Boat Command. This order was never received, and she stayed operational off America, here she became sunk, self destroyed.

Sinking of the Struma, yet another tragedy at sea during WW2
08 June 2003   (Chronological date: 24-02-1942)

Struma - click to read the articleWith little food or water, crammed into this small craft the almost  800 Jews, were in a pitiful state, they drifted aimlessly all night, to be located the following morning by a Russian submarine, a torpedo was fired to quickly sink Struma. 269 women, 103 children and 406 men all died, there was but one survivor, David Stolier.

German U-331 sinks British Battleship HMS Barham in the Mediterranean on the 25th. of November 1941
08 June 2003   (Chronological date: 25-11-1941)

HMA Barham explodes - click to read the articleWhen on the 25th. of November 1941, Barham was steaming in the Mediterranean, with 2 other British Battleships screened by 8 destroyers to cover an attack on an Italian convoy, Kapitan Leutnant Hans-Diedrich Freiherr von Tiesenhausen, in U-331, sighted this group, at a range of only 1,200 yards he fired a spread of 4 torpedoes at the centre battleship in the line of three. Barham was struck by 3 of these torpedoes, she rolled to port, her after magazine exploded with a horrific roar, she quickly sank taking 2/3 of her crew with her.

AE 1, AE 2, and J Class Submarines in The Royal Australian Navy
26 April 2003   (Chronological date: A sort)

AE Class Submarines - click to read the article.Long may we operate an efficient flotilla of submarines in the Royal Australian Navy. The RAN'S first Submarines were AE1 and AE2, both boats had arrived in Sydney on Sunday the 24th. of May 1914. At 0600 (6AM) they had passed through the Heads to proceed up the harbour to dock at Garden Island.


The Sinking of British Battleship, HMS Royal Oak, at Scapa Flow, by German Submarine, U-47
22 May 2002   (Chronological date: B sort)

Scapa Flow Chart, sinking of Royal Oak - click to read the articleJust after going to war against Britain in September 1939, the German U-Boat Commander, Admiral Donitz, was keen to upset both the Royal Navy, and her First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, by breaching the defences of Scapa Flow and sinking a major Naval Vessel.

Donitz studied the reconnaissance photographs, and decided that a 50 foot gap existed between the blockships which had been sunk in the northern end of the most eastern entrance in Kirk Sound, and he thought that a surfaced Submarine could penetrate this narrow access at the time of slack water. But, a night attack would be mandatory.

Capturing the Enigma Machine
22 May 2002   (Chronological date: D sort)

Baker-Cresswell, in a split second decision, stopped his Destroyer from ramming this U-Boat, and most likely sinking her. On his bridge, he recalled in his mind attending a Staff College lecture about the capture of ciphers in 1914, from a stricken German Naval vessel.

Tragedy at Sea
28 May 2002   (Chronological date: E  sort)

During the months of 1945 prior to the surrender of all German Sea. Air, and Land forces to the Allies on May the 8th, a series of disasters at sea happened. A horrific number of deaths resulted, and five German merchant ships were involved. One may well pose the question "Why are so many people unaware of these actions and this huge loss of life?"

The Role of the Submarine in World War 2
26 April 2002   (Chronological date: F  sort)

Which country controlled the most efficient Submarine Fleet during this global conflict?

Under Water Warfare, The Struggle Against the Submarine Menace, 1939 -1945 - Index
01 June 2002   (Chronological date: G  sort)

On patrol - click to read articleThis work is dedicated to all who fought at sea or in the air in the Battle of the Atlantic, the Sailors in Naval ships, the Crews of the Merchant Navy, and the Airmen from Coastal Command . This battle raged from the day war was declared on Sunday the 3rd. of September, 1939, to the 4th. of May 1945, when Admiral Donitz ordered his U-Boats to cease operations, and return to base.

Dutch Submarine Operations. WW2, 1941-1945
25 April 2003   (Chronological date: J  sort)

Dutch Submarine aground on Ladd Reef click picture to read the articleI am indebted to the many contributers and co-webmasters of this site: The Submarines of the Royal Netherlands Navy. for the source material from which I have produced this work.

German U-Boat U-534. Her Three Separate Lives. From 1942 /1996, and is still on display near Liverpool. - German U-Boat U-534. Her Three Separate Lives. From 1942 /1996, and is still on display near Liverpool.
24 January 2004   (Chronological date: N  sort)

U-534 - click to read the articleU-534 was taken over by the Warship Preservation Trust, and in May 1996 was brought to England, and placed on display at The Nautilus Maritime Museum at Birkenhead, Wirral, across the Mersey River from the City of Liverpool. It was symbolic that this area was chosen to house this ex WW2 German U-Boat, as it was from and to Liverpool, that many convoys were despatched or arrived during that titanic struggle, The Battle of the Atlantic.

Wreck of Royal Navy Submarine E-10 found after 87 years
20 October 2002   (Chronological date: P  sort)

A team of German divers recently found the wreck of the British WW1 Submarine E-10 in Heliogland in the North Sea.  She had been listed as missing on the 18th. of January in 1915, and it was thought that this boat had been a victim of a moored mine.

Holbrook, New South Wales, Submarine Town
15 December 2003   (Chronological date: Q  sort)

[Image]If you drive along the Hume Highway which links the major Australian cities of Melbourne and Sydney, you eventually arrive at the small country town of Holbrook. It is located 400 kilometers from the ocean, and about 500 kilometres from Sydney, my country’s largest city. Imagine your suprise, when you are suddenly confronted, in a park, in the main street of Holbrook, with the huge 90 metre long casing and fin of the RAN Submarine HMAS Otway, squatting in it’s concrete dock.

I-52 - Japan's Golden Submarine
09 April 2003   (Chronological date: R  sort)

The lure of gold from I-52, has left behind a trail of unpaid bills, and investors who have lost their money.

Salvaging the Russian Atomic Submarine Kursk
24 June 2002   (Chronological date: S  sort)

Map, savlage of Kursk - click to read the articleVOn the 12th. of August 2000, at 23.30 (11.30 PM) the Russian Atomic powered submarine Kursk, did not respond to radio messages, and was declared a wreck ...

Very slowly, the barge crawled off to the floating dock, where a delicate operation to nurse the two sections of the Kursk into the dock was undertaken, at last, she was safely inside, and the dock gates were closed. The most stunning salvage operation ever in Maritime History had been successfully completed.

CSS H L Hunley, the Confederate submersible sunk off Charleston Harbour in 1864, found and recovered
19 September 2002   (Chronological date: T  sort)

Location of CSS Hunley - click to read the articleI first noted the Confederate submersible H L Hunley's place in Naval History, when I wrote my Under Water Warfare. The Struggle Against the Submarine Menace 1939-1945 in 1997.

Off Charleston, South Carolina, in 1864, it had despatched the Union warship USS Housatonic, and itself to the ocean floor, to mark being the first submarine in history to sink a warship. This then, is the story of it's success, demise, and, in 2000, it's discovery and resurrection from its watery grave.

Accident to Chinese Submarine No.361 kills all its crew
07 May 2003   (Chronological date: Z)

Chnese Sub 361 sinks - click to read the article.On May the 3rd. 2003, Reuters reported that China was being unusually frank in reporting a Submarine accident in which all 70 of the crew had died. This disaster came about off the North East coast in Chinese territorial waters, but the cause was nor really disclosed.

A few submarine sites:

New published work by Paul W. Wittmer, lists all US Submariners who were killed in WW2

Fine Art Submarine Paintings and Prints

Dutch Submarines of the Royal Netherlands Navy 1906-2003.

U-Boat War.

A research site about German Submarines.

A site about a Dutch Submarine.


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